A CNC wood router works almost the same as any other CNC machine. A CNC machine or a Computer Numerically Controlled system which uses computer software and CNC controller electronics to drive a mechanical system. Using this setup, it is possible to achieve far better accuracy and precision than a human operator.
A traditional CNC router can move and cut in three directions which are usually referred to at the X, Y, and Z directions. The X-axis is usually the longest of the three running front to back. The Y-axis runs from left to right while the Z-axis runs up and down. Below you can see each axis labeled respectively.
These machines are very efficient in that they work in all three directions in near perfect unison, giving this machine the capability of carving complex shapes.